Analysis of potatoes’ genetic past identifies opportunities for better breeding in the future
Don’t take this the wrong way, but you’re simpler than a potato, at least on a genetic level. A study of the lowly spuds’ genetic history has found not only how complex the modern potato’s genome is, but that it may be overdue for some innovation. This interest in potato evolution isn’t because potatoes are slacking off in meeting their mutation quota, but that potatoes are humanity’s third most important crop worldwide. If nudging the right gene might yield healthier french fries, we might all be better for it.
A modern, cultivated potato has a lot of genetic material to look through, with over 39,000 genes in it’s genome. That’s more than a human’s 20,000 genes, and even more than potatoes own ancestors. Wild potatoes, as ancestors to the potatoes we grow to eat, are much simpler in comparison. They reproduce with what’s known as a diploid genome, with two sets of chromosomes per organism. This can be accomplished with seeds and berries, a feature that has obviously been bred out of their domesticated counterparts.
Taming the tuber
In the last eight- to ten-thousand years, human intervention changed a lot about these starchy members of the nightshade family. A domesticated potato can reproduce asexually, and now sports a tetroid genome, with four sets of chromosomes per individual. To potatoes out of the Andes mountains, we’ve altered everything from their pest resistance to the the plants’ circadian rhythm, as growing outside high mountain ranges meant differing amounts of sunlight per day. These sorts of mutations are among the 2,622 genes that transformed the potato into the staple starch we now find at the grocery store.
While researchers would like to see further change in the potato genome, they’re mostly looking to achieve it the old fashioned way. In the relatively short time since potatoes were first domesticated, farmers have been able to make some significant changes to these plants. With that said, there is concern that more recent breeding efforts have hit a bit of a ceiling, with no major improvements to speak of in the last 100 years. With more specific information about the potato genome, we may be able to make more significant gains via more carefully planned breeding programs. So as much as you may enjoy your mashed potatoes today, farmers may be able to offer an even better option in the not-so-distant future.
Source: Examining Potatoes’ Past Could Improve Spuds Of The Future by Layne Cameron and Robin Buell, MSU Today